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Copyright and Plagiarism : Citing Resources

Alfaisal University Library Copyright and Plagiarism Libguide designed to share information on Copyright, Fair Use, and Plagiarism

Citing Resources

When to cite

  • Anything that is printed, spoken or sung (except facts or common knowledge)
  • Unusual phrase borrowed from a speaker or writer
  • Photos, drawings, charts, graphs, etc.
  • Someone else's unpublished research findings

Examples (APA Style):

Quoting author(s) directly:

“It is possible that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic stenosis purely because of an association between aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease. Thus, when defining risk factors for aortic stenosis, it is essential to control for atherosclerosis” (Ortlepp, Schmitz, Bozoglu, Hanrath, Hoffmann, 2003, p. 1021).

Citing a reference in the text of paper:

Ortlepp, Schmitz, Bozoglu, Hanrath, and Hoffmann (2003) found that atherosclerosis must be controlled when defining risk factors for aortic stenosis.

Proper citation in bibliography:

Ortlepp, J. R., Schmitz, F., Bozoglu, T., Hanrath, P., & Hoffmann, R. (2003). Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with aortic stenosis predict prevalence of coronary artery disease but not of aortic stenosis: an angiographic pair matched case-control study. Heart, 89(9), 1019-1022.

Citing an Online Journal Article (DOI Assigned):

Stulz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 482-488. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482

Citing an Online Journal Article (No DOI Assigned):

Sillick, T.J., & Scjhutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Citing a reference found on the Internet:

plagiarism. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.Retrieved August 10, 2010, from

Citing Formats:

  • APA Style is the publication manual of the American Psychological Association and the preferred style manual for most of the Colleges on the UNMC campus. McGoogan Library provides a print copy of the APA Style Manual in the Reference Bookcase on the 6th floor.
  • MLA Stye Manual produced by the Modern Language Association. McGoogan Library provides a print copy of the MLA Style Manual in the Reference Bookcase on the 6th floor.
  • AMA Manual of Style A companion website is also available from Oxford University Press providing the most up-to-date information online. McGoogan Library provides a print copy of the Manual of Style located in the Reference Bookcase on the 6th floor.

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